Jeffrey Kahn on WYPR Midday

October 4, 2017

Human Gene Editing & Gene Therapy

October 4, 2017

 

On this edition of Midday on Ethics, Dr. Jeffrey Kahn stops by Studio A to discuss human gene editing and some of the ethical questions that surround its implementation.  We also take a look at some of the first successful gene therapies, including one that the FDA recently approved for the first time in its history.

The approved therapy is aimed at adults and some children with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, a common form of the disease. It  involves genetically modifying immune cells from a patient’s blood and then infusing them back into the same patient.

 


Jeffrey Kahn, PhD, MPH,  Andreas C. Dracopoulos Director of the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, regularly stops in to visit WYPR’s Midday show with Tom Hall to discuss pressing ethics issues related to current scientific and technological advances.

 


Prof. Kahn’s past appearances on Midday with Tom Hall:


 

Life and Death Decisions – The Case of Charlie Gard

July 31, 2017

 

Today, we’re having a conversation about the ethical questions surrounding the case of Charlie Gard. He’s the infant in Britain who died on Friday, a week shy of his first birthday.  He was critically ill for all of his short life.  He had a rare genetic condition that left him brain damaged and unable to move or breathe on his own.

 

His parents sought permission from UK courts to do what they thought was best for their son.  First they wanted to take him to the U.S. for experimental treatment.  More recently, his caregivers said that there was nothing more than could be done to help him and that he would die without artificial life support.  His parents wanted to take him home from the hospital to die.  In both instances, the courts ruled that what the parents wanted was not in the best interest of little Charlie.

 

This sad case reminds us that there are ethical questions that parents of very sick children and their doctors face all the time.  What does it mean to act in the best interest of a critically ill child and who gets to decide?   And when does the parents’ right to make life and death decisions for their infant begin and when does it end?

 

Diversity in Clinical Trials

June 13, 2017

 

Tom talks with Dr. Jeffrey Kahn about clinical trials and diversity. Why is so much medical research still done with white subjects — and more often with men rather than women — and what are the consequences of that, particularly for women and people of color? If clinical trials are done by examining only parts of our society, what does that mean for the efficacy of the findings, and how reliably can those results be extrapolated to apply to the rest of the population? And what are the consequences when that research is then used to develop treatments? Will they be effective for everyone, or primarily just for the group at the heart of the research? To wit: African Americans have a far greater incidence of Alzheimer’s Disease and a far lower rate of inclusion in clinical trials. What, if any, is the connection between those two realities?

 

Informed Consent and the Extraordinary Story of Baltimore’s Henrietta Lacks

April 5, 2017

 

Midday on Ethics: HBO and Oprah Winfrey will bring the story of Henrietta Lacks to television. The film, “The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks,” based on the best-selling book of the same name by Rebecca Skloot, premiers on April 22.  You may already be familiar with the story of Henrietta Lacks, who lived in southeastern Baltimore County in the early 1950s. She had cancer, and in 1951, doctors at Johns Hopkins Hospital did a routine biopsy. She died eight months later. But her cells live on, because without her consent, and without the knowledge of her family, cells taken during the biopsy were used, for decades, in medical research around the world.   In fact the HeLa cell line — H-E for Henrietta and L-A for Lacks — revolutionized medical research, and, by some accounts, has resulted in billions of dollars worth of medical breakthroughs. None of the proceeds, however, went to Ms. Lacks or to her descendants. Could the same thing happen today? We’ll try to untangle the ethical questions in this conversation about Informed Consent. How much have standards changed in the 65 years since Henrietta Lacks was a cancer patient at Hopkins? What are today’s standards?

 

New Report Sets Guidelines for Genome Editing

February 15, 2017

 

Genome editing, that is the ability to make additions, deletions, and alterations to the genome of a human or animal, is not a new. Scientists have been experimenting with it in labs for a while to better understand the way some diseases and disabilities work. But now a new report released yesterday from the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Medicine sets international guidelines for genome editing. New editing tools like CRISPR have opened up the doors for more lab and clinical research projects. The scientists behind the report hope their guidelines will serve as a roadmap to help other scientists avoid the ethical concerns associated with gene editing.

 

Bioethics With Dr. Jeffrey Kahn: A Question Of Assisted Suicide

January 24, 2017

 

Some people call it “assisted suicide.” Others prefer the terms “death with dignity,” “aid to the dying,” or “the right to die.” Whatever the label, nearly 20 percent of Americans now live in places where it’s legal. Washington, DC is one of those places. Maryland is not.  Should it be?

 

Bioethics With Dr. Jeffrey Kahn: Autonomous Car Safety

December 15, 2016

 

Every scientific advancement comes with a slew of questions. Take autonomous cars, for example.   In an accident, whose lives should a driverless vehicle be programmed to protect?   Passengers in the car, or people on the street? The field of bioethics addresses the complicated ethical dilemmas that researchers and policy makers face in an ever-changing modern world.

 

Questions in Bioethics: Genetically Modified Animals, and Now Humans

October 13, 2016

 

We thought we’d start by talking about the public health issue that has dominated the headlines since this summer. The Zika virus grabbed the public health spotlight and spread like crazy in certain parts of the world, including an outbreak that has been controlled in the Miami area. One of the approaches to eliminating the virus that scientists are considering involves genetically modifying mosquitoes and then releasing them into the environment. On the surface, it may seem that changing the genetic make-up of some insects shouldn’t be cause for alarm. But like so many of the issues that Jeff Kahn and his colleagues consider, it’s not that simple.

Dr. Kahn also weighs in on the topic of babies now being born with more than two biological parents. They actually carry the genetic material of three parents. To the parents who otherwise might not have biological children, the technology that makes this possible is a blessing. But is it a good idea? What are the consequences of these new possibilities? Tom asks Dr. Kahn about framing the questions we should be asking in bioethics, to find the answers we need.

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One Response to “Jeffrey Kahn on WYPR Midday”

  1. […] technologies at the 2017 TedXMidAtlantic conference in Washington, D.C. I’ve also become a regular guest on WYPR’s Midday with Tom Hall (Baltimore’s NPR affiliate). This public forum allows me to connect with listeners on relevant […]

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